CD antigens, also called cluster of differentiation, are cell surface antigens of leukocytes and found in various immune cell populations like B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, monocytes, granulocytes and stem cells. CD antigens express different protein receptors on the cell surface, which help to determine the type and maturation stage of the detected cells. Thus they are important for immune reactions of organisms. Special drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies, have been designed to identify a particular type of CD antigens thus to attack only this specific type of cell.
Figure 1. CD19 is an ideal tumor target. (Stadtmauer, E., et al., 2017)
Creative Biolabs provides a comprehensive target validation services to help confirm various types of CD antigens as therapeutic targets of drug discovery process thus to deal with data reproducibility crisis which is a big obstacle for drug research and development and may lead to failure and high risk of investment.
Creative Biolabs provides a comprehensive list of assays on multiple high-quality platforms to characterize the features of different CD antigens as your drug targets to advance your drug discovery. With experienced experts and cutting-edge technologies, we can provide high-quality and reliable services in a time-saving and cost-efficient manner. We offer professional target validation services for the following types of CD antigens.
B Cell CD Antigens
B cells play a pivotal role in humoral immunity and a broad spectrum of immune responses, including antigen presentation and T cell function regulation. Mature B cells are produced through a series of processes that take place in the bone marrow, spleen, and other peripheral lymphoid organs. CD antigens can be used as cell surface markers to identify different stages of B cell development or activation. One of the representative B cell CD antigens is CD19, which is an attractive target for antibody-based therapy.
T Cell CD Antigens
T cells play a central role in the immune response. T cells develop and mature from hematopoietic stem cells in the thymus gland and bone marrow. The representative T cell CD antigens are CD4 and CD8, which are co-receptors in MHC class II-restricted and MHC class I-restricted T cell activation, respectively. CD4 also plays an important functional role in the course of HIV-1 infection. T cell CD antigens are important target for T cell therapy.
Dendritic Cell CD Antigens
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population of immune cells. They act as professional antigen-presenting cells to T cells and as messengers between the innate and the adaptive immune systems. DC surface CD antigens also mediate physical contact between dendritic cells and T cells. CD123 is a representative CD antigen expressed in DCs and it is a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies.
NK Cell CD Antigens
NK cells (natural killer cells) are a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes and an essential component of innate immune system. They are derived from the common lymphoid progenitor generating B and T lymphocytes. NK cells provide rapid responses to virally infected cells and tumor formation. They play a key role in host defense by releasing cytokines and mediating cytolytic activity against tumor cells and virus-infected cells. One of the representative NK cell CD antigens is CD56, which is a possible therapeutic target for aggressive cancers.
Macrophage CD Antigens
Macrophages are innate myeloid cells, a type of leukocyte. They are highly specialized in removal of dying or dead cells and cellular debris. They also play an important role in inflammation, immune system, muscle regeneration, wound healing, iron homeostasis, tissue homeostasis, etc. One of the macrophage CD antigens, CD64, is an attractive immunotherapeutic target for M1-type macrophage mediated chronic inflammatory diseases.
Monocyte CD Antigens
Monocytes are the largest type of leukocyte and can differentiate into macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells. Monocytes play a critical role in immune system, in facilitating healing and repair, and in the pathogenesis and progression of diseases such as liver fibrosis and tumor metastasis. CD11a is a representative CD antigen expressed in monocyte and it is a therapeutic target for regulating immunity.
Granulocyte CD Antigens
Granulocytes are a type of leukocyte characterized by the presence of small granules which contain proteins. There are four types of granulocytes: basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils and mast cells. The role of granulocytes, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses, is to fight against foreign substances that cause inflammation or infection. CD16 expressed on neutrophils represents a possible drug target in cancer immunotherapy.
Stem Cell CD Antigens
Stem Cells are cells with the potential to differentiate into many other different types of cells in the body or divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of cells. Embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells are two main types of stem cells. Stem cells provide new cells and serve as a repair system for the body. CD24, which is overexpressed in some cancer stem cells, is an interesting new target for cancer therapy.
Creative Biolabs has a dedicated assay development team that will work closely with you to design customized assays for your specific drug target. Our service will meet your specific needs fast at extremely competitive prices. If you need more information, please feel free to contact us at anytime. We look forward to working with you and helping your drug research and development project succeed.
Stadtmauer, E.; Mangan, PA., 2017. CAR T-Cell Therapy: On the Verge of Breakthrough in Many Hematologic Malignancies. Journal of the advanced practitioner in oncology, 8(3), pp. 228-231.
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